MISAC
Medicinsk forskning och utveckling
Leg. Tandl. Christer Malmström

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Mercury in brain tissue of infants

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Amalgam derived mercury in feces

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Kvicksilverläckage från amalgam av känd ålder

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LMI-Biospectrons feces test

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Amalgam ett ostabilt material

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Infraktioner och kuspfrakturer på tänder med amalgamfyllningar

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Oral Miljöförorening

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100 analyser av kvicksilver i feces



Mercury in brain tissue of infants

Eggleston D W, Malmström C, Nylander M


Sir,
Necropsy studies clearly showed higher mercury (Hg) concentrations in bulk tissue of brain stem tissue from 26 infants compared with brain tissue of the occipital lobes from 21 adults of the same population in California, USA (Table 1).

Preliminary data of adults do not indicate higher tissue levels of Hg in brain stem compared to occipital brain tissue 1. Tissue samples were also analyzed from kidneys and liver in three and from spleen in two of the infants. Mercury concentration in one of the kidneys was very high (1370 ng Hg/g wet weight), higher than normally seen in adults even with dental amalgam fillings.

The 26 infants ranged in age from death at birth to 15 months and 18 died from Sudden Infants Death Syndrome (SIDS), and 8 from other causes such as congenital heart defects, respiratory insufficiency, pneumonia and blunt force.

A U.S.-Swedish study of 83 Californian adults, including the same adults as in the present study, showed that the number of tooth surfaces containing amalgam was significantly correlated with H9 concentrations in the occipital cortex 2. Several other international studies have reported significant correlations between dental amalgam and brain tissue, pituitary gland, and renal tissue 1,3,4,5. Elemental Hg vapor is continuously released from amalgam fillings, and increases by mastication, toothbrushing and bruxism 6,7,8. Higher levels of Hg are emitted during insertion or removal of amalgam fillings 9,10. Vimy et al 1989 11, showed uptake and distribution of radioactive labeled Hg from amalgam placed in sheep demonstrating a considerable release of Hg from the amalgam fillings in the mother and a transfer and accumulation to the fetus organs including brain, kidneys and liver.

Of particular importance is the redistribution of Hg from the liver to the brain and kidneys after delivery, showed in guinea pigs 12.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that "the exposure of women in childbearing age to Hg vapor should be as low as possible" 13. Data about the toxicity of human fetal exposure to elemental Hg is sparse 13.

As the major source of Hg to humans with amalgam fillings are from their fillings 13,14. The influence of mercury from amalgam fillings should be fully investigated.

Table 1

Mercury in Brain stem in 26 infants,
(18 died in SID, 8 of other causes),
compared with 21 adults from the same area in Calofornia, USA.

Infants

Mercury in brain stem
ng Hg/g ww

Cause of death

Number

Min

Mean

Max

SIDS

18

4

55

155

Other

8

2

63

127

Adults

Mercury in brain cortex

 

Number

Min

Mean

Max

 

21

10

25

66



Table 2

Mercury in Brain stem, Kidney, Liver and Spleen in three infants,
compared with 21 adults from the same area in Calofornia, USA.

Age in months

Mercury in ng Hg/g ww

Cause of death

Age

Mercury
Brain

Kidney

Liver

Spleen

SID

3

90

1370

300

164

SID

2

47

65

50

64

Other

10

44

280

116

--

Adults with amalgam fillings

25

433

--

--

Adults with no amalgam fillings

7

49

--

--

Fig. 1

References:

  1. Nylander M. Accumulation and Biotransformation of Mercury and its Relationship to Selenium after Exposure to Inorganic mercury and Methyl Mercury. A Study on Individuals with Amalgam Fillings, Dental Personnel,* and Monkeys. Doctoral Thesis, Karolinska Institutet 1990.
  2. Eggleston D W, Nylander M. Correlation of dental amalgam with mercury in brain tissue. J Prosthet Dent 1987; 58: 704-707.
  3. Nylander M, Friberg L, Lind B. Mercury concentrations in the human brain in relation to exposure from dental amalgam fillings. Swed Dent J 1987; 11; 179-187.
  4. Schiele R. Quecksilberabgabe aus Amalgam und Quecksilberablagerung in Organismus und Toxikologische Bewertung. In: Amalgam - Pro und Contra. Statements - Discussion. Knolle G (Ed). Köln: Deutsche Ärzte-Verlag 1988; pp. 123-131.
  5. Nylander M, Friberg L, Eggleston D W, Björkman L. Mercury accumulation in tissues from dental staff and controls in relation to exposure. Swed Dent J 1989; 13: 235-243.
  6. Gay D D, Cox R D, Reinhardt J W. Chewing releases mercury from fillings. Lancet 1979; 1: 985-986.
  7. Vimy M J, Lorscheider F L. Serial measurement of intra-oral air mercury: Estimation of daily dose from dental.amalgam. J. Dent Res 1985; 64: 1072-1075.
  8. Aronsson A-M, Lind L, Nylander M Nordberg. Dental amalgam and mercury. Biol Metals 1989; 2: 25-30.
  9. Frykholm K O. Exposure of dental personnel to mercury during work. Swed Dent J 1970; 63: 763-772.
  10. Richards J M & Warren P J (1985) Mercury vapour released during the removal of old amalgam restorations. Br Dent J 1985; 155: 231-232.
  11. Vimy M J, Takahashi Y, Lorscheider F L. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings. Am J Physiol 1990; 258: 939-945.
  12. Yoshida M, Satoh H, Kojima S, Yamamura Y. Retention of mercury in organs of neonatal guinea pigs after in utero exposure to mercury vapor. J Trace Elem Exp Med 1990; 3: 91-109.
  13. WHO. Environmental Health Criteria 118 Inorganic Mercury. World Health Organization, Geneva 1991.
  14. WHO. Environmental Health Criteria 101 Methylmercury. World Health Organization, Geneva 1990.